Brannon L, Feist J, Updegraff J. Health psychology: an introduction to behavior and health. Wadsworth: Cengage Learning; 2014.
Blair SN, Kampert JB, Kohl HW III, et al. Influences of cardiorespiratory fitness and other precursors on cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality in men and women. JAMA. 1996;276(3):205–10.
Miles L. Physical activity and the prevention of cancer: a review of recent findings. Nutr Bull. 2007;32(3):250–82.
Kokila G, Smitha T. Cancer and physical activity. J Oral Maxillofac Pathol. 2017;21(1):4–7.
Kruk J, Czerniak U. Physical activity and its relation to cancer risk: updating the evidence. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2013;14(7):3993–4003.
Rezende LFM, Sa TH, Markozannes G, Rey-Lopez JP, Lee IM, Tsilidis KK, et al. Physical activity and cancer: an umbrella review of the literature including 22 major anatomical sites and 770 000 cancer cases. Br J Sports Med. 2018;52(13):826–33.
Araiza P, Hewes H, Gashetewa C, Vella CA, Burge MR. Efficacy of a pedometer-based physical activity program on parameters of diabetes control in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Metab Clin Exp. 2006;55(10):1382–7.
Way KL, Hackett DA, Baker MK, Johnson NA. The effect of regular exercise on insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and Meta-analysis. Diabetes Metab J. 2016;40(4):253–71.
Asano RY, Sales MM, Browne RA, Moraes JF, Coelho Junior HJ, Moraes MR, et al. Acute effects of physical exercise in type 2 diabetes: a review. World J Diabetes. 2014;5(5):659–65.
Conn VS, Hafdahl AR, LeMaster J, Ruppar T, Cochran J, Nielsen P. Meta-analysis of health behavior change interventions in type 1 diabetes. Am J Health Behav. 2008;32(3):315–29.
Colberg SR, Laan R, Dassau E, Kerr D. Physical activity and type 1 diabetes: time for a rewire? J Diabetes Sci Technol. 2015;9(3):609–18.
Burr JF, Shephard RJ, Riddell MC. Physical activity in type 1 diabetes mellitus: assessing risks for physical activity clearance and prescription. Can Fam Physician. 2012;58(5):533–5.
Colberg SR, Sigal RJ, Yardley JE, Riddell MC, Dunstan DW, Dempsey PC, et al. Physical activity/exercise and diabetes: a position statement of the American Diabetes Association. Diabetes Care. 2016;39(11):2065–79.
Blair SN. Physical inactivity: the biggest public health problem of the 21st century. Br J Sports Med. 2009;43(1):1–2.
Kramer AF, Colcombe SJ, McAuley E, Scalf PE, Erickson KI. Fitness, aging and neurocognitive function. Neurobiol Aging. 2005;26(1, Supplement):124–7.
Mandolesi L, Polverino A, Montuori S, Foti F, Ferraioli G, Sorrentino P, et al. Effects of physical exercise on cognitive functioning and wellbeing: biological and psychological benefits. Front Psychol. 2018;9:509.
Cox EP, O’Dwyer N, Cook R, Vetter M, Cheng HL, Rooney K, et al. Relationship between physical activity and cognitive function in apparently healthy young to middle-aged adults: a systematic review. J Sci Med Sport. 2016;19(8):616–28.
Colcombe SJ, Kramer AF, Erickson KI, Scalf P, McAuley E, Cohen NJ, et al. Cardiovascular fitness, cortical plasticity, and aging. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101(9):3316–21.
Weuve J, Kang JH, Manson JE, Breteler MM, Ware JH, Grodstein F. Physical activity, including walking, and cognitive function in older women. JAMA. 2004;292(12):1454–61.
Lautenschlager NT, Cox KL, Flicker L, Foster JK, van Bockxmeer FM, Xiao J, et al. Effect of physical activity on cognitive function in older adults at risk for Alzheimer disease: a randomized trial. JAMA. 2008;300(9):1027–37.
Wendell CR, Gunstad J, Waldstein SR, Wright JG, Ferrucci L, Zonderman AB. Cardiorespiratory fitness and accelerated cognitive decline with aging. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2014;69(4):455–62.
Babyak M, Blumenthal JA, Herman S, Khatri P, Doraiswamy M, Moore K, et al. Exercise treatment for major depression: maintenance of therapeutic benefit at 10 months. Psychosom Med. 2000;62(5):633–8.
Martinsen EW. Physical activity in the prevention and treatment of anxiety and depression. Nord J Psychiatry. 2008;62(s47):25–9.
Kim DJ. Effects of physical activity on depression in adults with diabetes. Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2018;9(4):143–9.
Mayor S. Physical activity reduces risk of depression at any age, finds study. BMJ. 2018;361:k1808.
Anderson E, Shivakumar G. Effects of exercise and physical activity on anxiety. Front Psychiatry. 2013;4:27.
Stonerock GL, Hoffman BM, Smith PJ, Blumenthal JA. Exercise as treatment for anxiety: systematic review and analysis. Ann Behav Med. 2015;49(4):542–56.
Paxton R, Motl R, Aylward A, Nigg C. Physical activity and quality of life—the complementary influence of self-efficacy for physical activity and mental health difficulties. Int J Behav Med. 2010;17(4):255–63.
Argyle M. The psychology of happiness. Sussex: Routledge; 2001.
Diener E, Lucas RE, Schimmack U, Helliwell JF. Defining well-being: Well-Being for Public Policy: Oxford University Press; 2009.
Helliwell JF, Putnam RD. The social context of well-being. In: Huppert FA, Baylis N, Keverne B, editors. The science of well-being: Oxford University Press; 2005.
Marks N, Shah H. A well-being manifesto for a flourishing society. In: Huppert FA, Baylis N, Keverne B, editors. The science of well-being: Oxford University Press; 2005.
Zhang Z, Chen W. A systematic review of the relationship between physical activity and happiness. J Happiness Stud. 2018;20:1305–22.
Richards J, Jiang X, Kelly P, Chau J, Bauman A, Ding D. Don’t worry, be happy: cross-sectional associations between physical activity and happiness in 15 European countries. BMC Public Health. 2015;15:53.
Harris MA. The relationship between physical inactivity and mental wellbeing: findings from a gamification-based community-wide physical activity intervention. Health Psychol Open. 2018;5(1):2055102917753853.
Lapa TY. Physical activity levels and psychological well-being: a case study of university students. Procedia Soc Behav Sci. 2015;186:739–43.
Veenhoven R. World database of happiness. Soc Indic Res. 1995;34(3):299–313.
Gomes R, Gonçalves S, Costa J. Exercise, eating disordered behaviors and psychological well-being: a study with Portuguese adolescents. Rev Latinoam Psicol. 2015;47(1):66–74.
Tse MMY, Tang SK, Wan VTC, Vong SKS. The effectiveness of physical exercise training in pain, mobility, and psychological well-being of older persons living in nursing homes. Pain Manag Nurs. 2014;15(4):778–88.
Fortier MS, Guerin E, Williams T, Strachan S. Should I exercise or sleep to feel better? A daily analysis with physically active working mothers. Ment Health Phys Act. 2015;8(0):56–61.
Dishman RK, O’Connor PJ. Lessons in exercise neurobiology: the case of endorphins. Ment Health Phys Act. 2009;2(1):4–9.
Boecker H, Sprenger T, Spilker ME, Henriksen G, Koppenhoefer M, Wagner KJ, et al. The runner’s high: opioidergic mechanisms in the human brain. Cereb Cortex. 2008;18(11):2523–31.
Lucas RE, Schimmack U. Income and well-being: how big is the gap between the rich and the poor? J Res Pers. 2009;43(1):75–8.
Piff PK, Moskowitz JP. Wealth, poverty, and happiness: social class is differentially associated with positive emotions. Emotion. 2018;18(6):902–5.
Gere J, Schimmack U. Benefits of income: associations with life satisfaction among earners and homemakers. Personal Individ Differ. 2017;119:92–5.
Kahneman D, Krueger AB, Schkade D, Schwarz N, Stone AA. Would you be happier if you were richer? A focusing illusion. Science. 2006;312(5782):1908–10.
Howell R, Howell CJ. The relation of economic status to subjective well-being in developing countries: a meta-analysis. Psychol Bull. 2008;134(4):536–60.
Natali L, Handa S, Peterman A, Seidenfeld D, Tembo G. Zambia cash transfer evaluation T. does money buy happiness? Evidence from an unconditional cash transfer in Zambia. SSM Popul Health. 2018;4:225–35.
Haushofer J, Shapiro J. The short-term impact of unconditional cash transfers to the poor: experimental evidence from Kenya*. Q J Econ. 2016;131(4):1973–2042.
Sarracino F. Determinants of subjective well-being in high and low-income countries: do happiness equations differ across countries? 2013. p. 51–66.
Lucas RE, Dyrenforth PS. Does the existence of social relationships matter for subjective well-being? In: Finkel EJ, Vohs KD, editors. Self and relationships: connecting intrapersonal and interpersonal processes. New York: Guilford Press; 2006. p. 254–73.
Kushlev K, Dunn EW, Lucas RE. Higher income is associated with less daily sadness but not more daily happiness. Soc Psychol Personal Sci. 2015;6(5):483–9.
Aaker JL, Rudd M, Mogilner C. If money does not make you happy, consider time. J Consum Psychol. 2011;21(2):126–30.
Dunn EW, Gilbert DT, Wilson TD. If money doesn’t make you happy, then you probably aren’t spending it right. J Consum Psychol. 2011;21(2):115–25.
Kaun DE. Income and happiness: earning and spending as sources of discontent. J Socio-Econ. 2005;34(2):161–77.
Boyce CJ, Daly M, Hounkpatin HO, Wood AM. Money may buy happiness, but often so little that it Doesn’t matter. Psychol Sci. 2017;28(4):544–6.
Jebb AT, Tay L, Diener E, Oishi S. Happiness, income satiation and turning points around the world. Nat Hum Behav. 2018;2(1):33–8.
Gasiorowska A. The relationship between objective and subjective wealth is moderated by financial control and mediated by money anxiety. J Econ Psychol. 2014;43:64–74.
Joo SH, Grable JE. An exploratory framework of the determinants of financial satisfaction. J Fam Econ Iss. 2004;25(1):25–50.
Nikolaev B, Rusakov P. Education and happiness: an alternative hypothesis. Appl Econ Lett. 2015;23(12):827–30.
Swiatek L. Education for sustainable happiness and well-being. High Educ Res Dev. 2017;36(6):1307–9.
Nikolaev B. Does higher education increase hedonic and Eudaimonic happiness? J Happiness Stud. 2016;19:483–504.
Ruiu G, Ruiu ML. The complex relationship between education and happiness: the case of highly educated individuals in Italy. J Happiness Stud. 2018;20:2631–53.
Jongbloed J. Higher education for happiness? Investigating the impact of education on the hedonic and eudaimonic well-being of Europeans. Eur Educ Res J. 2018;17(5):733–54.
Oreopoulos P, Salvanes KG. Priceless: the nonpecuniary benefits of schooling. J Econ Perspect. 2011;25(1):159–84.
Chen W-c. How education enhances happiness: comparison of mediating factors in four east Asian countries. Soc Indic Res. 2012;106(1):117–31.
Clark AE, Oswald AJ. Satisfaction and comparison income. J Public Econ. 1996;61(3):359–81.
Hartog J, Oosterbeek H. Health, wealth and happiness: why pursue a higher education? Econ Educ Rev. 1998;17(3):245–56.
Veenhoven R. Developments in satisfaction-research. Soc Indic Res. 1996;37(1):1–46.
Okun MA, George LK. Physician- and self-ratings of health, neuroticism and subjective well-being among men and women. Personal Individ Differ. 1984;5(5):533–9.
Park JH, Lee KS. Self-rated health and its determinants in Japan and South Korea. Public Health. 2013;127(9):834–43.
Angner E, Ghandhi J, Purvis KW, Amante D, Allison J. Daily functioning, health status, and happiness in older adults. J Happiness Stud. 2013;14:1563–74.
Jöreskog KG, Olsson UH, Wallentin FY. Multivariate analysis with LISREL: Springer International Publishing; 2016.
Hair JF, Black WC, Babin BJ, Anderson RE. Multivariate data analysis: Pearson Education Limited; 2014. p. 734.
Strauss J, Witoelar F, Sikoki B. The fifth wave of the Indonesia family life survey: overview and field report: RAND Corporation; 2016.
Strauss J, Witoelar F, Sikoki B, Wattie AM. The fourth wave of the Indonesia family life survey (IFLS4): overview and field report; 2009.
Ainsworth BE, Haskell WL, Leon AS, Jacobs DR Jr, Montoye HJ, Sallis JF, et al. Compendium of physical activities: classification of energy costs of human physical activities. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1993;25(1):71–80.
Brown TA. Confirmatory factor analysis for applied research. 2nd ed. New York: The Guilford Press; 2015. p. 462.
Ross A, Cloutier S, Searle M. The association between leisure time physical activity and happiness: testing the indirect role of health perception. J Community Psychol. 2019;47(5):1169–83.
de Souto BP. Direct and indirect relationships between physical activity and happiness levels among older adults: a cross-sectional study. Aging Ment Health. 2014;18(7):861–8.
Lera-López F, Ollo-López A, Sánchez-Santos JM. How does physical activity make you feel better? The mediational role of perceived health. Appl Res Qual Life. 2017;12(3):511–31.
Korshøj M, Gupta N, Mortensen OS, Jørgensen MB, Holtermann A. Intensity of occupational physical activity in blue-collar workers: do self-reported rating and device-worn measurements agree? Eur J Appl Physiol. 2022;22(5):1293–301.
Jakicic JM, Otto AD. Physical activity considerations for the treatment and prevention of obesity. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005;82(1):226S–9S.
WHO. Global recommendations on physical activity for health. Switzerland: WHO; 2010.
Lee S-Y. Structural equation modeling: a Bayesian approach. Sussex: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2007.
Nikolaev B. Does higher education increase hedonic and Eudaimonic happiness? J Happiness Stud. 2018;19(2):483–504.
Bullock HE, Harlow LL, Mulaik SA. Causation issues in structural equation modeling research. Struct Equ Model Multidiscip J. 1994;1(3):253–67.
MoH. Laporan nasional Riskesdas 2018. Jakarta: Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kesehatan Kementrian Kesehatan RI; 2018.